Nicotine, a chemical mostly found in the plants of the Solanaceae family, is an alkaloid and is found accumulated in the leaves of these plants, although biosynthesis of the chemical occurs in the roots of the plants. Nicotine is one of the major the different parts of addictive plants like tobacco (0.6%-3.0%) and is the reason behind their addiction in humans due to its psychoactive nature.
The follow are 10 interesting factual statements about nicotine.
The name nicotine originates from the scientific name of the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum. The scientific name of the tobacco plant is itself named the French ambassador to Portugal Jean Nicot de Villemain. Villeman is credited for sending tobacco seeds and plant saplings to Paris in 1560 because of its use in medicinal purposes.
Nicotine was first extracted from the tobacco plant by German physician Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt and chemist Karl Ludwig Reimann in 1828. After its discovery Posselt and Reimann labelled it as a poison. Actually nicotine can be an antiherbivore chemical, which in turn causes addiction when consumed in small amounts (1mg or less) and death if used high amounts (30mg-60mg).
Nicotine can be an alkaloid with the chemical formula C10H14N2. Its IUPAC name is 3[2,5-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine. It includes a molecular mass of 162.12g/mol. Nicotine is a hygroscopic liquid which is miscible with water as a nitrogenous base. nikotiinipussit netistä Its density is 1.01g/cm3, melting point -79oC and boiling point 247oC. The nicotine molecule includes a half life of 2 hours and its own metabolism is hepatic. Nicotine is also optically active and has two enantiomeric forms.
4. Nicotine as an insecticide
As already said nicotine is an antiherbivore drug which if used huge amounts is fatal alive forms. That is why nicotine laden tobacco has been used being an insecticide even before the World War II. But after the WWII its usage drastically lowered due to the option of cheap synthetic insecticides which are more easily available than tobacco and less bad for mammals. But in the recent years the hype surrounding organic farming has again increased the interest of the farmers in the usage of tobacco as a pesticide being an alternate to chemical pesticides.
5. Nicotine addiction
Our central nervous system has certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotine binds to several of these and escalates the quantity of several neurotransmitters. Among these neurotransmitters dopamine is one particular neurotransmitter which is significantly increased during nicotine use and is in charge of the sense of euphoria and relaxation caused by the utilization of tobacco (nicotine) products.
6. Psychoactive effects of nicotine
Nicotine is really a psychoactive substance since it is mood altering. It causes both euphoria and relaxation. Within the body nicotine is metabolised in the liver. First after its metabolism nicotine results in the release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This sudden release of glucose and epinephrine causes euphoria after the intake of nicotine. After the initial euphoria nicotine leads to relaxation, increased alertness and sharpness by working on different neurotransmitters of the body. Nicotine also has pain relieving properties.
7. Side effects of nicotine intake
Tough it looks like nicotine is an excellent substance to increase one’s sharpness, induce calmness and elevate one’s mood there are more negative areas of nicotine intake than positive. Among these the most typical unwanted effects of nicotine intake are an elevated risk of hypertension and heart attacks. It really is sad that every cigarette that a man smokes reduces his life time by 14 years. Moreover since nicotine has been found to affect the working of Estrogen on hippocampus, hence over time nicotine users are prone to amnesia along with other related diseases.
Nicotine is known as to be more toxic than most typical drugs like heroin and cocaine. More harm is performed by nicotine to the body because it is readily absorbed by the bloodstream and reaches the brain through the lungs within 7 seconds of its intake either orally or as nicotine patches.
9. Usage of nicotine in medical science
Though nicotine is not a doctor’s companion, it is yet not his worst foe. Nicotine known because of its pain relieving properties has been researched upon to be used as a potential pain killer minus its harmful effects. Nicotine in addition has been found to lessen preeclampsia, allergic asthma; amongst others by acting being an anti-inflammatory agent.
10. Nicotine in literature
Nicotine has been personified in popular literature as Nick O’ Teen, a humanoid villainous character in Superman comics which was created as part of anti-nicotine drive to teach children concerning the ill-effects of nicotine intake in virtually any form.
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